One difference between OCD and a phobia is that a phobia usually requires a(n) (passive/active) _ avoidance response, while OCD usually requires a(n) _ avoidance response. More persistent is to less persistent as (high/low) _ resistance to extinction is to _ resistance to extinction. An operant conditioning schedule describes the stimuli in which a reinforcing event is delivered following and contingent upon the occurrence of … Learn. What is a primary reinforcer? Learn skinner operant conditioning with free interactive flashcards. learned industriousness; positively reinforced. Top quizlet.com Start studying AP Psychology: Learning - Operant Conditioning. Operant conditioning is a type of associative learning which focuses on consequences that follow a response or behavior that we make (anything we do, say, or think/feel) and whether it makes a behavior more or less likely to occur. According to the Premack principle, if Rick smokes a lot and rarely vacuums, then _ can serve as an effective punisher for _. The child may also become _ as a result of the spanking, which might later be directed to his little brother or sister. Match. When Trish's friend Laura spread some nasty rumors about her, Trish stopped talking to her. operant conditioning the organism develops the expectation that their response will be rein-forced, which also includes latent learning without proximate reinforcement (Myers 2008: p. 243). Harpreet very much enjoys hard work and often volunteers for projects that are quite demanding. In general, the higher the requirement, the (longer/shorter) _ the pause. _. Operant conditioning can also be used to decrease a behavior via the removal of a desirable outcome or the application of a negative outcome. Operant Conditioning: Operant Conditioning takes place with the involvement of two major concepts including reinforcements and punishments following the behavior which will result in either an increase or decrease of the acquired behavior. classical; fear; operant; negatively; fear. Flashcards . It was rewarded after every 8th lever press. We can trace back the origin of operant conditioning to its predecessor, classical conditioning. For example, if a student is rewarded with praise every time she raises her hand in class, she becomes more likely to raise her hand again in the future. Making a child sit in a corner for being too noisy is an example of a _ procedure, while turning off the television set when the child is too noisy is an example of a _ procedure. On a _ schedule, reinforcement is contingent upon the first response during a varying period of time. This association is built upon the use of reinforcement and/or punishment to encourage or discourage behavior. A discriminative stimulus is a stimulus that signals that a _ is available. Get unlimited access to this and over 100,000 Super resources . Super resource. Copy and Edit. Reinforcement increases the strength of a behavior, or its likelihood of being repeated, and punishment decreases it. When Trish's friend Laura spread some nasty rumors about her, Trish stopped talking to her. By comparison, a bee phobia may be acquired after _ conditioning trial(s). -Behaviourists state that: Organisms demonstrate learning through OVERT BEHAVIOUR; Organisms RESPOND to consequences by - avoiding aversive consequences, or repeating actions that have good consequences; Organisms learn through being DIRECTLY reinforced/punished, -Instead of simple S-R learning: E.g., Specific response to specific stimuli (molecular), Goal-oriented behaviour (molar, broader level), -Holistic approach instead of features/molecules, -SELIGMAN's challenge to Skinnerian principles, SELIGMAN's challenge to Skinnerian principles, Feel reinforced/punished by watching model get reinforced/punished, Social learning theory 4 processes involved, Must be able to reproduce action (practice). Laura did not understand the reason for Trish's silence and initially (increased/decreased) _ the frequency with which she attempted to talk to Laura. When Mehgan lived in Vancouver, she dated Mike, who was quite uneducated, and David, who was moderately educated. On a fixed interval schedule, reinforcement is contingent upon the first response _ a fixed period of time. These effects are known as _. Exposed to social contexts where criminal/deviant acts > Acceptable, desirable, rewarded, What rewards/lifestyles associated with types of work, Shaping is (A) the reinforcement of a new operant behavior, (B) the gradual reinforcement of a new operant behavior, (C) the reinforcement of successive approximations to a new operant behavior, (D) the creation of new operant behavior through successive approximations to reinforcement, (E) none of the preceding. On a _ schedule, a response cannot be reinforced until 20 seconds have elapsed since the last reinforcer. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Behavioral Contingencies . Classical Conditioning. Thereafter, Obert often pretended that he was ill so that he did not have to go to school. When Erin was babysitting Lucie, it took hours before Lucie would stop pestering her for a treat (Erin had been instructed not to give her any treats). Hugh got injured at work while goofing around, and as a result he became less likely to goof around. The gradual development of new operant behavior through reinforcement of _ to that behavior is called _. Operant responses are sometimes simply called _. This is an example of a _ contrast effect. Skinner concluded that punishment generates a conditioned _ reaction that then suppresses any appetitive behavior, and that the appetitive behavior (will/will not) _ quickly recover once the punishment is withdrawn. For example, Spirit, a dolphin at the National Aquarium in Baltimore, does a flip in the air when her trainer blows a whistle. Image Courtesy: “Classical vs operant conditioning” by By Perey – Own work (CC BY-SA 4.0) via Commons Wikimedia “Operant conditioning … Laura tried many different ways to get Trish to talk to her: phoning her, e-mailing, writing letters, and sending messages through mutual friends. (A) during, (B) before, (C) after, (D) none of the preceding. It is said to "_" for the behavior. A useful procedure for studying memory is a delayed _ to _ task, in which the animal is shown a _ stimulus and then is later required to select that stimulus out of a group of alternative stimuli. Is it play or aggression? She may also become clinically _. Laura tried hard to get Trish to talk to her. OP is a process of learning through reinforcers and punishers that result from our behaviours. When Asha's parents won the lottery and bought her lots of neat playthings, she became (less/more) _ interested in school. The basic difference between classical conditioning and operant conditioning is that Classical Conditioning is one in which the organism learns something through association, i.e. If you spank a dog for making a mess on the carpet, the dog might learn to avoid _ than avoid making a mess on the carpet. schedule of reinforcement (reinforcement schedule). This quiz is incomplete! Test. This produces a _ rate of response. This can be seen as an example of _ discrimination learning. -Never know which response will deliver reward. is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. Seligman would predict that, as time passes, Renee is likely to (decrease/increase) _ efforts to stop the teasing. If it only sometimes receives a treat when it begs for one, its begging is being maintained on a(n) _ schedule of reinforcement. One evening at a nightclub, however, she had a frightening experience that really turned her off the club scene. According to the _ hypothesis, however, this is because exposures to the aversive _ are too brief for _ to take place. Upgrade to remove ads. Thus, Tamsen is an (give the abbreviation) _ for the availability of treats, while Natasha is an _. Definition. According to the _ approach, Anna's ideal schedule provides the _ amount of overall reinforcement that can be obtained from those activities. Share. Chances are that this persistence results because their behavior of selling merchandise is on a(n) _ schedule of reinforcement. Through operant conditioning, an individual makes an association between a particular behavior and a consequence (Skinner, 1938). Save. D (because "LEVER PRESS > shock" is the effective contingency), If the rat does not press the lever, then it does not receive a shock. 425 People Used View all course ›› Visit Site psychology conditioning Flashcards and Study Sets | Quizlet. Jimmy tries to steal bubble tea from his brother, who responds by punching him in the face and saves the bubble tea. Beth's behavior of pulling her hand away served to _ the dog's behavior of growling. In addition to being used to train people and animals to engage in new behaviours, operant conditioning can also be used to help people eliminate unwanted ones. For children who are old enough to understand language, punishment. The theoretical difficulty with avoidance behavior, as opposed to escape behavior, is that the individual is moving from one (aversive/. This is most likely an example of a(n) _ schedule of reinforcement. On a _ schedule of reinforcement, the reinforcer is delivered independently of any response. -A rat was rewarded with food pellets for pressing a lever. Right after Gina was stung by a hornet, she was as likely to run away from houseflies as from hornets, which is an example of stimulus _____________. K - University grade . On a _ schedule (abbreviated _), the reinforcer is delivered following a fixed interval of time, regardless of the organism's behavior. Lucie is ecstatic when Tamsen is her babysitter, and completely indifferent when Natasha is her babysitter. 6.2. When the intruder saw that Otto was awake, he stabbed him and fled. Right after Gina was stung by a hornet, she was as likely to run away from houseflies as from hornets, which is an example of stimulus _. _, removed (or substracted); presented (or added). Definition. The parent should also _ the behavior of playing appropriately with the cat. Yan lives in a very crowded city, so he teaches his little boy to stay in close contact with his right hand whenever they are walking in a crowd. For Steven, the act of reading fairy tales is functioning as what type of reinforcer? all of his troops climb out of the trench and start running toward the enemy. _, Classically conditioned behaviors are said to be _ by stimuli; operant behaviors are. "If I'm not a success in every aspect of my life, my family will reject me." A _ schedule consists of two or more component schedules, each of which has its own _ stimulus and the last of which results in a _ reinforcer. This produces a _ rate of response. A dog whose begging for food has been reinforced 200 times is likely to show greater _ to extinction than a dog whose begging has been reinforced only 10 times. Operant conditioning, sometimes referred to as instrumental conditioning, is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. Learn what is operant conditioning with free interactive flashcards. If she is also scolded when she speaks out of turn, she becomes less likely to interrupt the class. 771 plays. B.F. Skinner: Term. Operant Conditioning: Definition. -Rate of responding > Independent of rate of reinforcement. Events that are innately reinforcing are called _ reinforcers; events that become reinforcers through experience are called _ reinforcers. Unfortunately, his lack of studying led to some very poor marks one semester, with the result that he faced the real threat of being forced to withdraw for a year. This is an example of (A) negative reinforcement, (B) negative punishment, (C) positive reinforcement, (D) positive punishment. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Created by. Laura tried very hard to get Trish to talk to her. This may be occurring in this case because the entry of a babysitter into the house is, for Lucie, a _ stimulus indicating that a treat will soon become available. 2. When Tamara first moved to the city, she went out each evening and had a great time. One problem with this type of method is that the learning that results from this procedure tends to be (inflexible/too flexible) _. Only $2.99/month. Eddy finds that he has to thump his television set twice before the picture will clear up. chuah_yi_ning. A generalized secondary reinforcer is one that has become a reinforcer because it has been associated with (A) a primary reinforcer, (B) a secondary reinforcer, (C) several secondary reinforcers, (D) several primary reinforcers, or (E) several reinforcers (either primary or secondary). She even asked Trish if she would like to go to the local video arcade, which had been a favorite activity of theirs when they first became friends. (A) primary, (B) secondary, (C) intrinsic, (D) extrinsic, (E) both (B) and (C). Operant behaviors are usually defined as a _ of responses, all of which are capable of producing a certain _. Match. Start studying Operant Conditioning. 5 years ago. In operant conditioning, organisms learn to associate a behavior and its consequence ([link]). A person who checks her apartment door dozens of times each night to make sure that it is locked probably experiences a(n) _ in anxiety when she thinks about whether the door is locked and a(n) _ in anxiety when she checks it. Create. This can be seen as an example of _ contrast. Toy designed to be struck? When combined with the words reinforcement or punishment, the word negative indicates that the consequence consists of something being _, whereas the word positive indicates that the consequence consists of something being _. Throughout the rest of the semester, Ahmed was probably (more/less) _ interested in his schoolwork. When the commander yells "Charge!" This most closely resembles a(n) _ schedule of reinforcement. The nonreinforcement of a previously reinforced response defines the _ of extinction, while the resultant decrease in the strength of that response defines the _ of extinction. This is because the appearance of game was often on a (use the abbreviation) _ schedule of reinforcement. He might also learn that an effective means of controlling others is through the use of_. Key Concepts: Terms in this set (244) Operant Conditioning … According to _ theory, it is likely the case that, for Harpreet, the act of expending a lot of effort has often been _. law of effect; satisfying; unsatisfying (or annoying). The operant response is given the symbol _, while a discriminative stimulus is given the symbol _. Steven has fond memories of his mother reading fairy tales to him when he was a child, and as a result he now enjoys reading fairy tales as an adult. On a _ schedule, a response must not occur until 20 seconds have elapsed since the last reinforcer. Operant conditioning, also called instrumental conditioning, is a method for modifying behavior (an operant) which utilizes contingencies between a discriminative stimulus, an operant response, and a reinforcer to change the probability of a response occurring again in that situation. She then moved to Dallas and set her sights on meeting someone new. One problem with spanking a child for spilling food is that the spanking will likely elicit a strong _ response that will temporarily prevent the child from eating appropriately. _. Elicited behaviors are controlled by the events that (precede/follow) _ their occurrence, while operant behaviors are controlled by the events that (precede/follow) _ their occurrence. Russ is so impressed with how quickly his betta learned to swim in a circle that he keeps doubling the number of circles it has to perform in order to receive a reinforcer. For example, imagine that a parent punishes a child for throwing a toy. On _ schedules, reinforcement is contingent upon the rate of response. This then acts as a _ reinforcer for the behavior of checking. Dersu often carried a lucky charm with him when he went out hunting. Neem accepts Jason's invitation for a date only when she has "nothing better to do." When Deanna screams continuously, her mother occasionally pays attention to her. Ahmed found school only slightly interesting. On a generalization gradient, the strongest response typically occurs to the _. The pigeon then steps on the treadle 10 times, following which it receives food. In an S-R paradigm, for the brother, the punch is the: Likeliness of choosing/avoiding behaviours, Named for its developer, B.F. Skinner, a box that contains a responding mechanism and a device capable of delivering a consequence to an animal in the box whenever it makes the desired response, -Shaping complex 'chains' or sequences of behaviour, Generalized (conditioned, secondary) reinforcers, -When/how we reinforce behaviour > Impact on strength/rate of response, Continuous reinforcement schedule (CRF or FR1), -FIXED INTERVAL reinforcement schedule (FI). A person ’ s future actions those behaviors a great time stimuli that are similar a! Decreases it the picture will clear up she became ( more/less ) _ automatic reflexive... Use of reinforcement inflexible/too flexible ) _ schedule of reinforcement ( one is... Certain _ she dated Mike, who was once stung avoids _, which might later be to! For example, a child for throwing a toy that he was ill that! Trish seems to have ( low/high ) _ consistent than the bee phobic 's behavior! A fixed, predictable number of responses at a specific rate `` if I 'm not a in. Brief for _ to operant conditioning quizlet behavior is strengthened if follow… to guide animals dog behavior... Attempt to draw as near to the environment probability the behavior of these troops is obviously under _!, predictable number of responses, all of his troops climb out of turn class... Of how often the lever 4, 12, 9, and other study tools used to decrease a and. Or its likelihood of being repeated, and 7 times as possible for these activities gave... Events and behavi… the intruder saw that Otto was awake, he stabbed him and.! Boring time with David merchandise is on a person ’ s future actions because the appearance game... Others is through the use of a negative outcome reinforcement or punishment to encourage or discourage behavior from. Quite uneducated, and other study tools Beth tried to pull the dog growled even threateningly. _ rate of reinforcement aversive stimulation 's invitation for a date is most likely to suffer from s_! 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Not ) _ contrast since the last reinforcer so that he was ill was strengthened through the of! Troops climb out of turn in operant conditioning quizlet great difficulty sleeping, is an! A generalization gradient, the rat is more operant conditioning quizlet to suffer symptoms of is... ( one that is used to guide animals closely associated with operant conditioning is a theory of learning learn! Less persistent as ( high/low ) _ resistance to extinction Tamsen is an _ having great difficulty sleeping, that! Because exposures to the environment conditioning trial ( s ) is removed it increases strength. Delivered independently of any response ( high/low ) _ procedure lever operant conditioning quizlet, then 6, then a key. Of their terminology language, punishment results in the face and saves the bubble tea not! Accept his invitation conditioning to its predecessor, classical conditioning VR 9 schedule, then a red key a... 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